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AMATEKA Y’UBURYO ICURUZWA N’UBUCAKARA BW’ABIRABURA BO MURI AFURIKA BWARI AMARIRA GUSA MU KINYEJANA CYA 15 KUGEZA 18.

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Nubwo ku migabane yose y’isi ushobora kuhasanga Abirabura, umwirabura aho ava akagera akomoka ku mugabane w’Afurika. Nyuma y’Afurika, umugabane w’Amerika niwo ufite Abirabura benshi. Abenshi bahajyanywe ku buryo bwo kugurishwa ngo bakoreshwe ubucakara.

Bimwe mu byatumye Abirabura bagaragara ku migabane yindi y’isi itari Afurika ni ubucuruzi bwabakorewe ubwo bakurwaga muri Afurika bajyanwa ku migabane itandukanye ngo bakoreshwe mu mwanya w’amamashini cyane ko cyari igihe isi yari itaratera imbere mu byerekeranye n’ikoranabuhanga.

Iki gikorwa cyo gucuruza abirabura cyakozwe mu bihe bibiri bitandukanye kandi n’abantu batandukanye. Nk’uko abanyamateka nka Olivier Pétré-Grenouilleau babivuga; mbere y’ikinyejana cya 17, Abarabu bo muri Asiya no mu gice gito cy’Uburayi babonye ko akazi kabo gakeneye amaboko arenze ayo bari bafite, maze bafata umwanzuro wo kugana kwerekeza ku mugabane w’ Afurika bashaka abagabo bakomeye bazashobora gukora mu mwanya w’amamashini ndetse n’inyamaswa zakoraga imirimo ikomeye.

Hagiye hatwarwa kandi n’abagore bo kurongora cyane ko babonaga bafite uruhu rudasanzwe kandi rwiza.

Kugirango aba bagabo b’Abirabura babaga bajyanwe batazigera bahirahira kurongora abo bagore babo, babanzaga kubakona.

Uku kurongora Abiraburakazi kw’Abanyaziya kwatumye muri Aziya y’amajyepfo usanga abantu benshi bafite uruhu rwirabura.

Nk’uko tubikesha urubuga rwa Wikipedia, iki gikorwa kiswe ubucuruzwi bwo mu burasirazuza cyajyanye abirabura bagera kuri miliyoni 17.

Ikindi gihe kitazibagirana ku birabura cyane abo ku mugabane w’Amerika ni igihe abirabura bacuruzwaga guhera mu mwaka w’1441 mu gikorwa cyo gucuruza abirabura cyatangiwe n’Abanyaportugal, Abaholandi, Abafaransa, ndetse n’ Abongereza, aho baje muri iki gikorwa nyuma bise icyo mu burengerazuba.

Iri curuzwa ry’Abirabura bo muri Afurika ryo ryakozwe n’Abazungu b’abanyaburayi bari bamaze igihe kitari gito bavumbuye umugabane w’Amerika, bakaba barifuzaga abakozi basimbura ba kavukire ku mugabane w’Amerika aribo bitwa Abamerendiye (les Amérindiens).

Habayeho gushaka ubundi bwoko bwasimbura ubwo kuko babonaga abo b’amerendiye badatanga umusaruro wifuzwaga n’abazungu b’ababanyaburayi cyane ko kubera ibihe bibi bakoreragamo nk’ubushyuhe bukabije bwo mu nganda no mu birombe bapfaga umusubizo.

Ku bw’izo mpamvu bashatse ubwoko bukomeye cyangwa bwabasha kwihanganira iyo mibereho mibi. Babifashijwemo n’umupadiri wa kiliziya gatolika mu kinyejana cya 17, bamenye ko muri Afurika hashobora kuba hari abantu bashobora kwihanganira ubuzima bubi.

Muri icyo kinyejana kandi nibwo Abazungu baturutse mu Burayi bazaga muri Afurika bitwaje udukoresho duto duto kandi tw’agaciro gake (les pacotilles) ; twabaga tugizwe ahanini n’indererwamo, imyenda yo kwambara, inzoga ziciriritse, imbunda n’ibindi.

Ibyo byose byabaga ari ibyo guha abashefu b’Abanyafurika kugira ngo babahe abantu bajyana gukoresha ku mugabane w’Amerika.

Kuko wasangaga ari ubwa mbere aba bashefu babonye ibi bikoresho bya kizungu byatumaga biva imyuma bagatanga abirabura benshi ku buryo hari ubwo umushefu yahabwaga nk’icupa ry’inzoga mvaburayi nawe agatanga abirabura barenga ijana.

Aba bashefu b’Abanyafurika babanje guhera ku bantu babaga barafashwe bunyago mu bihugu byabo. Kubera umubare munini Abazungu batwaraga, byatumye biba ngombwa ko hagurishwa n’abandi batari imfungwa cyangwa abafashwe bunyago. Mu gufata aba birabura habaga gukoresha ingufu zidasanzwe kubabona byasabaga kubahiga nk’inyamanswa kuko hari n’ubwo baraswaga.

Mu kujyana aba birabura muri Amerika hifashishwaga ubwato bapakirwagamo ari benshi kandi ku buryo bugerekeranye. Ubu bwato bwamaraga hafi amezi arenga ane mu nzira. Kubera uburyo batwarwagamo byatumaga abarenga icya kabiri cy’abajyanwe bagwa mu nzira.

Abenshi bapfaga bazize inzara abandi bakiroha mu mazi bakeka ko amazi yabasubiza ku mugabane w’Abakurambere babo.

Muri abo bapfaga kandi hari abicwaga n’abazungu kuko uwarwaraga yarohwagwa mu nyanja ngo atabagora cyangwa ngo yanduze abandi.

Ku mugabane w’Amerika mu birwa bya Caraïbe, muri Amerika y’amajyepfo n’iy’amajyaruguru hari harashinzwe amasoko akomeye kabuhariwe mu kugurisha abo birabura babaga bakuwe muri Afurika. Muri ayo masoko abantu batandukanye bazaga kugura abantu bakoresha mu mirima y’ibisheke, ikawa, icyayi, kakawo n’ibindi ndetse no mu nganda.

Aba birabura bab’abagore cyangwa abagabo,  uwabaguraga yahitaga abaha amazina ashaka cyane cyane bagahabwa amazina bikurikije agaciro babaga baguzwe,  urugero n’uko hari nk’abitwaga nka ba 50cent, 80cent bagendeye kumacent anga atyo babaga baguzwe.

Nanone kandi aba birabura bashoboraga kuba bahabwa amazina ashingiye ku nyamanswa runaka nk’imbwa , ndetse n’ibindi . urugero ruzwi ni nka Dogg Dogg n’andi menshi. Aha kandi ngo kwitwa amazina asuzuguritse gusa sibyari bihagije ,kuko babaga bari ku munyururu nk’imbwa banakubitwa umusubirizo.

Ntihagurishwaga abaturuka muri Afurika gusa kuko n’ababaga bavukiye muri Amerika baba abirabura buzuye cyangwa ibibyaririrane (les métis), akenshi aba babaga bavutse ku buryo bwo gufata ku ngufu abakobwa b’abirabura , nabo iyo bagezaga imyaka runaka y’ubukure bajyanwaga ku isoko na ba sebuja bakagurishwa. Ibi byashoboraga no gutuma uhita uburana n’umuryango wawe burundu kuko harigihe wagurwaga n’umuguzi utuye muri Leta ya kure y’aho uturutse.

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Emmy Son Bakunda

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